Inflation Reduction Act
In August 2022, the US Congress passed the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), a landmark climate and competitiveness package dedicating hundreds of billions of dollars in tax credits to clean technologies over ten years.
IRA has a level of ambition and simplicity that is difficult for the EU to match. While US federal climate policy used to be stop-and-go, innovators now enjoy durable policy certainty around tax credits for energy (wind turbines, solar panels, batteries), transportation (electric vehicles, zero-emission trucks, sustainable aviation fuels), and buildings (heat pumps, rooftop solar, HVAC), to name but three sectors.
Although IRA’s ambitions are similar to Fit for 55’s, the instruments used to reach those ambitions are quite different. The US is primarily using financial incentives such as assigned financial envelopes for specific technologies and infrastructure, tax credits, and loans. Meanwhile, the EU is prioritising carbon pricing, binding targets, performance standards, sectoral regulation, direct technology mandates, grants, and financial support.